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Phenothiazines developed as synthetic dyes
USDA develops phenothiazines as insecticides
Phenothiazines used to kill swine parasites
Phenothiazines used to hinder rope-climbing abilities in rats
Rhone Poulenc synthesizes chlorpromazine, a phenothiazine, for use as an anesthetic
French psychiatrists use chlorpromazine as part of a drug cocktail that can put mental   patients into "hibernation"
Chlorpromazine described as producing a chemical lobotomy
Chlorpromazine, marketed in the U.S. as Thorazine, found to induce symptoms of Parkinson's Disease
Chlorpromazine said to induce symptoms similar to encephalitis lethargica
First reports of permanent motor dysfunction linked to neuroleptics, later named tardive dyskinesia
French physicians describe a potentially fatal toxic reaction to neuroleptics, later named neuroleptic malignant syndrome
California Mental Hygiene Department determines that chlorpromazine and other neuroleptics prolong hospitalization
Neuroleptics found to impair learning in animals and humans
NIMH study of one-year outcomes find that drug-treated patients are more likely than placebo patients to be rehospitalized
Tardive dyskinesia is said to resemble Huntington's disease, or "postencephalitic brain damage"
Neuroleptics shown to cause decrease of nerve cells in basal ganglia in rats
Boston researchers report that relapse rates were lower in pre-neuroleptic era, and that drug-treated patients are more likely to be socially dependent
In animal studies, neuroleptics found to cause significant increases in dopamine receptors in the brain, which is the very pathology hypothesized to be a cause of schizophrenia
California investigator Maurice Rappaport reports markedly superior three-year outcomes for patients treated without neuroleptics
Canadian researchers describe drug-induced changes in the brain that make a patient more vulnerable to relapse, which they dub "neuroleptic induced supersensitivity psychosis"
Neuroleptics found to cause 10% cellular loss in brains of rats
Prevalence of TD in drug-treated patients is reported to range from 24% to 56%
TD found to be associated with cognitive impairment.
Relapse in patients on injectable fluphenazine found to lead to "severe clinical deterioration"
Loren Mosher, head of schizophrenia studies at the NIMH, reports superior one-year and two-year outcomes for Soteria patients treated without neuroleptics
NIMH researchers find an increase in "blunted effect" and "emotional withdrawal in drug-treated patients who don't relapse, and determine that neuroleptics do not improve "social and role performance" in non-relapsers
Anticholinergic medications used to treat Parkinsonian symptoms induced by neuroleptics reported to cause cognitive impairment
Drug-induced akathisia is linked to suicide and to violent homicides
World Health Organization reports that schizophrenia outcomes are much superior in poor countries, where few patients are maintained on neuroleptics
Researchers acknowledge that neuroleptics cause a recognizable pathology, which they named neuroleptic induced deficit syndrome
Neuroleptics found to cause an increase in the volume of caudate region in the brain, which is a sign of brain damage
Harvard investigators report that schizophrenia outcomes have worsened over past 20 years, and are now no better than in first decades of 20th century
"Real-world" relapse rates for schizophrenia patients treated with neuroleptics said to be above 80% in two years following hospital discharge, which is much higher than in pre-neuroleptic era
"Quality of life" in drug-treated patients reported to be "very poor"
MRI studies show that neuroleptics appear to cause hypertrophy of the caudate, putamen, and thalamus, with the increase "associated with greater severity of both negative and positive symptoms"
Neuroleptic use is found to be associated with atrophy of the cerebral cortex
Harvard researchers conclude that "oxidative stress" may be the process by which neuroleptics cause neuronal damage in the brain
Treatment with two or more neuroleptics is found to increase risk of early death
Neuroleptics linked to fatal blood clots
TD linked to early death
Risk of early death for schizophrenia patients is found to have increased since introduction of atypical antipsychotics
NIMH researchers report that atypical antipsychotics provide few, if any, benefits compared to old neuroleptics
Suicide rate for schizophrenic patients is reported to be 20 times higher today than it was a century ago
British researchers report that quality-of-life was better on old drugs than on atypicals
Illinois investigators report that long-term recovery rates for unmedicated schizophrenia patients are eight times higher than for medicated patients
A Research Timeline for Antipsychotic Drugs